Groovy is considered an object-oriented programming language. This is used to create Java applications with a syntax that is Java-compatible. It is being managed by Apache projects. The people behind this technology included Jochen Theodorou, Cedric Champeau, Guillaume Laforge, and Paul King.
Groovy’s typing discipline is described as strong, dynamic, and static, which is under the Apache 2.0 license. It has similar features such as programming languages like Python, Ruby, Perl, and Smalltalk. In 2003, Groovy was introduced using the file extension .groovy with James Strachan as its main designer.
Meanwhile, Java is also an object-oriented programming language created by James Gosling. Oracle Corporation, previously known as Sun Corporation, was responsible for the development of Java. It has a general-purpose programming language. It is characterized as class-based with the existing features, along with multi-threading attributes.
As a programming language, it is found to be static, safe and strongly typed. It uses the file extension names such as .java or .class. In 1995, Java was introduced. It is designed to create applications that can be written once and run anywhere. It is widely used by the client-server type of applications. It is granted with a license under both GNU General Public License and Java Community Process. In March 2018, Java 10 as its most recent version was launched.
Comparing Groovy vs. Java
In general, both Groovy vs. Java are top choices in the industry. The following are the key differences between Groovy vs. Java.
Definition. Groovy is used with the JVM byte code that fits the Java platform. Java is created on JDK and is operated on JVM.
Usage. Groovy can both be employed as a scripting and programming languages. Java is both used as object-oriented and programming language.
Integration. Groovy can be combined with either web or scripting applications while Java can be used in an object-oriented application and is suitable to any JVM-based apps.
Platform. Groovy can be used to assist any operating platforms or systems. Java is focused on supporting cross-platform operating systems.
Syntax. In terms of syntax, both Groovy and Java have very similar features. However, Java has a solid disciple in its syntax.
Community. Groovy can be sent to JCP for the requested specification while Java has a bigger community known as Java Community process, which is being managed by technical experts in the industry.
License. Groovyhada license under the Apache license 2.0 while Java received a license with a GNU General Public License.
Imports. In Groovy, all packages are being imported by default. Java is clearly cited when importing any package using the Java class file.
Documentation. Groovy employs one-page documentation while Java provides documentation through the JCP specification.
Key differences: Groovy vs. Java
1) As a programming language, Groovy is seen to also support the scripting language while Java is basically an object-oriented programming language.
2) Groovy can be used in multi-methods where the period of using the method is dependent on the runtime whereas Java is employed in multiple method declarations by selecting them during the compilation period instead of the run time.
3) As for Groovy, the automatic resource management scheme is not seen with static, anonymous inner classes. Java has automatic resource management shown in ver. 7 and provides an upper hand based on the inner static or anonymous classes.
4) Both Groovy and Java have functional programming features such as Lambda functions and interfaces. In Java, there are other streaming and parallel operational functions based on its JDK ver. 8 onward.
5) In Groovy, defining and citing string and character literals can be made with a sole or double quote format. In Java, it only uses a double quote format when declaring and defining a string or character literal.
6) In Groovy, all use an Object and only Objects. However, no concept of autoboxing or unboxing is found and no primitive conversion while Java takes primitive data types and Wrapper classes to carry out autoboxing and auto-unboxing both explicitly and implicitly.
7) In Groovy, the instant expansion and reduction of data types have a wide range of conversions while Java has limitations in doing so.
8) Groovy consists of a default access modifier as public for all types of class members or data. Meanwhile, Java provides a default access level as package level based on the type of class members.
9) Groovy produces the getters and setter instantly in its class when accessing or changing the class members while in Java, it will be explicitly cited in the class using the access modifiers.
10) Groovy consists of Groovy beans while Java provides Java beans.
11) Groovy is also known as Java’s superset considering that Java programs can be used on a Groovy environment while Java programs are not always compatible on a Groovy environment.
12) Groovy has the easy-to-understand syntax when defining the types by simply employing def to declare a variable while Java has various kinds of type names when declaring the variable or any method or class members.
13) Groovy does not need any method or entry point of a process to operate the class or any program while Java needs the main method internally for a class when running the program.
Groovy vs. Java conclusion
In Groovy vs. Java, both are considered object-oriented programming languages. However, Groovy is also a scripting language. Being both a scripting language and programming language provides greater weight to the Groovy. Selecting the best programming language to use is dependent on the functions and features as needed to ensure the application works efficiently by providing a trade-off selection in an effective process.